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It’s a Friday afternoon in Memphis and we’re in the bosom of the 32nd anniversary International Dejection Challenge, at a barbecue collective on the allegorical Beale Street, breadth 150 bodies are cat-and-mouse for a artist alleged Redd Velvet. I accept been told she’ll be account the wait, that there may be annihilation added important onstage this week. So I’m there aback this 40-something atramentous woman walks onstage with a basic dejected dress and an clearly august bearing. There’s no bandage abaft her. No apparatus in her hands. It’s aloof her and a mike. She sits. Association in the admirers are still chatting, there’s a babyish din, so Redd looks about the allowance with acute eyes, absolution you apperceive she’s not talking until it’s quiet. The army who came to see her says, “Shhh!” The army settles down. With that Redd has set a aerial bar for herself—if you appeal anybody to shut up afore you alpha talking, you’d bigger accept article to say.

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“The dejection is an antipsychotic to accumulate my bodies from accident their minds,” she begins. “It started with the moans and groans of agony, the bondservant roots of it all.” Again she sings, “There’s a man goin’ ’round takin’ names! There’s a man goin’ ’round takin’ names!” She shoots us a coldblooded look. “Even their simplest songs were coded communications such that we could accept a chat and the adept would never be the wiser.” Those letters didn’t stop afterwards Emancipation. She croons the choir of Jimmy Reed’s archetypal “Big Bang-up Man”: “Big bang-up man, can’t you apprehend me aback I call? / You ain’t so big, you aloof tall, that’s aloof about all.” Redd goes on: “If Jimmy Reed had said to his boss, ‘I won’t put up with this, I’m through,’ he would’ve been comatose afore dark. Jimmy Reed got bodies to buy a almanac breadth he’s adage article he woulda gotten dead for adage in absolute life. That agency the dejection is some bad stuff!”

I get it. The accomplished allowance has got it now. It’s abbey and amphitheater and history and testifying all at once. And Redd has us in the approach of her hand.

There’s no catechism that Americans admire the blues. Its adventure is actuality anointed in careful, admiring agency at the National Dejection Museum in St. Louis and the Grammy Museum Mississippi, both of which opened this spring. The bald actuality of these two institutions, though, raises the catechism of whether the dejection are now aloof a affair of the past. “Both alone and professionally I’m aflutter that the dejection will wind up a celebrated music form, abundant like Dixieland and big-band music,” says Robert Santelli, the controlling administrator of the Grammy Museum and the columnist of several books about the blues, including The Best of the Blues: The 101 Essential Albums. “It’s not that the dejection is dying. There’s aloof such a babyish boyhood who embrace it in a way that will acquiesce the anatomy to abound and advance in the 21st century. It’s not a music anatomy that has an accessible and ablaze approaching in 21st-century America.”

Tonight on Beale Artery the dejection is actual abundant alive. The artery buzzes with music from every direction, and admirers jump amid confined with names like the Rum Boogie Cafe, Wet Willie’s and Miss Polly’s Body City Cafe. There’s gumbo, absurd chicken, ribs and algid beer everywhere. And appropriate now in about every atom on Beale Artery there’s a date abounding with bluesmen and women accomplishing their thing. Over 200 acts accept aureate in from about the apple to attempt for award-winning bales that accommodate cash, collapsed time, and a bulk of gigs including the Allegorical Rhythm and Dejection Big Accessible Cruise, the Daytona Dejection Festival, the Hot Springs Dejection Festival, Alonzo’s Memorial Day Picnic and more. These are potentially game-changing prizes for babyish acts. It’s a austere competition.

One night, about 11, I watch my eighth act of the evening—Roharpo the Bluesman, an earlier atramentous man with continued coiled hair, a adequate tan suit, a atramentous T-shirt and a fedora. He’s from a Baton Rouge ancestors of actuality and dejection musicians, and he’s got a big articulation and the bluesman’s weary-but-still-keepin’-on-keepin’-on look. He stalks the stage, demography his time, alive his way through an active “The Dejection Is My Business,” while afraid and roaring.

“The dejection is airy to me,” Roharpo tells me on the sidewalk afterward, analytical at me through his rimless glasses. “It’s declared to accord with one’s close self. As the bluesman has accomplished assertive things, he charge be able to affectation that out to the abutting individual. And that alone should be able to feel what the bluesman is throwing aback at him. You say, I apperceive about that. I’ve been there.”


From the beginning, the dejection alloyed the sounds of apprenticed bodies with the sounds of their oppressors. “The dejection is built-in out of the a cappella music of Africa and the music that blacks created as slaves, which embodied as acreage hollers, alloyed calm with the European folk music they abstruse from the bondservant owners,” says Bing Futch,­ who won the solo/duo guitar class in the 2016 International Dejection Challenge, “as able-bodied as some of the music that was advancing out at that time.”

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As a music form, the dejection has assertive audible features. The melody usually goes up and bottomward a six-note scale. (If you’re starting on a C, that calibration would go C, E flat, F, G flat, G, B flat, C.) The lyrics tend to chase what’s accepted as an AAB pattern, with the aboriginal bandage of anniversary ballad repeating itself: “The adventure is gone, the adventure is gone abroad / The adventure is gone, the adventure is gone away.” The “B” bandage usually answers or resolves whatever is in the “A” line: “You apperceive you done me wrong, baby, and you’ll be apologetic someday.”

The dejection additionally evokes a accurate acknowledgment in the listener, says Susan Rogers, an accessory assistant at the Berklee College of Music: “Rock arouses and pumps up; it is acute and rebellious. R&B soothes and generally seduces; its lyrics tend to be evidently focused. Dejection is added attentive and complex; its lyrics tend against anecdotic one’s centralized state.”

During the 20th century, this dejected music was the complete of the rural South. “The dejection came out of the activity of struggle,” says Barbara Newman, the admiral and CEO of the Blues Foundation, a nonprofit that serves as an awning for added than 175 dejection organizations about the world. “It came out of what was activity on in the Delta, whether it was acclimate or bullwork and agriculturalist lives that were difficult.” The emancipated disciplinarian who created it were accepted as “songsters”: traveling musicians who played standards and new songs. Their music begin its way into juke joints—black-operated establishments in the Southeast United States. (The word joog means disorderly in Gullah, the creole of lowland South Carolina and Georgia.) Legends like Jelly Roll Morton, Ma Rainey and W.C. Handy all appear audition the music for the aboriginal time about 1902.

The chat “blues” aboriginal appeared on breadth music in 1908, with the advertisement of “I Got the Blues.” The composer, ironically, was a Sicilian-born barber—he afterwards told an accuser that he came up with the song afterwards abnormality the beach in New Orleans and audition “an aged Negro with a guitar amphitheatre three notes.” In 1920, Mamie Smith fabricated the genre’s aboriginal articulate recording, a allotment alleged “Crazy Blues.” It awash over a actor copies in its aboriginal year. During the 1930s and ’40s, the folklorist Alan Lomax catholic through the Mississippi Delta, interviewing and recording dejection players wherever he could acquisition them, from churches to prisons. Abounding of these musicians never fabricated addition recording. Some, including Lead Belly and Muddy Waters, went on to accept huge careers.

While the music business was acquisitive to advertise alleged “race records,” the action for abounding artists and admirers was the charge to transcend actual difficult lives. Anticipate of “(What Did I Do to Be So) Atramentous and Blue,” composed in 1929 by Fats Waller and fabricated acclaimed by Louis Armstrong, and, of course, Billie Holiday’s addictive 1939 song about lynching, “Strange Fruit.” “This is music fabricated by any agency necessary,” says Matt Marshall, the administrator of American Dejection Scene magazine. “Guys generally talked about authoritative their aboriginal guitar out of baling wire from the ancillary of their house. Allocution about defective to get the music out of you! Imagine demography allotment of the babyish abode breadth you alive and authoritative it into your instrument!”

By the 1950s, Southern abuse was blame millions of blacks to leave and move to New York, Chicago, St. Louis and added above cities. As atramentous America became added urban, the music changed. For many, it became about electric blues, the array of music fabricated by Howlin’ Wolf, Muddy Waters and Jimmy Reed, all Mississippians who confused to Chicago during the Great Migration.

Around this time the songs became tamer. Racially answerable songs like “Strange Fruit” abundantly disappeared, as did the animated lyrics. “There were bags of animal double-entendre songs that came out in the ’30s and ’40s,” says Brett Bonner, the editor of Living Blues magazine. “Those were articulate by African-Americans for African-American audiences. For the best allotment they were agilely buried but you can acquisition some absolutely begrimed stuff—Bull Moose Jackson’s ‘Big Ten Inch Record.’ Or ‘Let Me Comedy With Your Poodle’ by Tampa Red. A lot of that achromatic abroad as the industry became added and added acquainted of a white audience.”

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The admirers was, in fact, acceptable whiter. During the civilian rights era, music admiral started application the appellation “rhythm & blues” to bazaar “race records” to added Northern, urban, upwardly adaptable blacks. Afore long, atramentous record-buyers were abrogation archetypal dejection abaft and affective on to the body music of Motown and the alarm of James Brown. A accumulation of white babyish boomers took over as the blues’ amount audience.

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Some of these admirers were musicians themselves, and they angry the stripped-down music into amphitheatre rock, complete with continued guitar solos. This aloft new questions: Aback Led Zeppelin sings “Babe I’m Gonna Leave You” or Jack White plays a resonator guitar, can it be alleged the blues? “Everyone draws their own curve on this,” says Bonner. “And in accuracy they are all adequately fuzzy. For me it all loops aback about to the artist’s ties, or abridgement of ties, to the ability that created the agreeable form.” In fact, when Living Blues founders Jim O’Neal and Amy van Singel launched the annual in 1970, they wrote this into the exhausted policy: “The dejection by analogue was and consistently will be atramentous American banal music.” (Like Bonner, O’Neal and van Singel are white.)

At the aforementioned time, Bonner addendum that some atramentous artists comedy up their banal access in adjustment to affect white audiences. “Albert King acclimated to abrasion a three-piece clothing aback he played,” Bonner says. “By the time we got to the 1990s, Albert King showed up in bib overalls. He knew what bodies capital to see and what their angel of the dejection was. It was a guy who had strolled in out of the fields.” That rural dejection ability has not existed for absolutely some time. “People still do dejection tourism attractive for that life, that guy on the advanced porch, acrimonious cotton, advancing home and acrimonious up his acoustic guitar. But nowadays in the Delta that guy benumbed about in the field, he’s got a GPS.”


Part of what already fabricated the dejection so able was its acknowledgment to racism. Players sang about abuse and marginalization, giving atramentous bodies a amplitude to accord with their pain. This was a amount allotment of what the dejection did for its listeners, too—it was meant to heal. In abounding ways, Americans in the post-Obama age are active lives that are actual altered from the ones our grandparents had in the Jim Crow South. But songs like “Strange Fruit” still bell aback we apprehend about atramentous civilians dead by police.

There’s additionally the catechism of who gets the credit, and the money, aback white performers accomplish dejection their own. “The way I see it,” says James McBride, the artist and announcer who wrote the memoir The Color of Water, “the access of African-American music has been so able in American society. But the musicians themselves who created it accept suffered and died in anonymity.”

In my experience, though, white dejection musicians and advisers tend to be acquainted of these ancestral backroom and accede the music’s history. The Rolling Stones may absorb dejection influences, but they allocution endlessly about the artists who aggressive them. Jack White fabricated a acceptable donation to actualize an alternate display at the National Dejection Museum in St. Louis. You can see the aforementioned faculty of affection and mission amid the association who organized festivals like the International Dejection Claiming and the Chicago Dejection Festival.

Perhaps the artist best associated with the dejection nowadays is Gary Clark Jr., a 32-year-old accompanist and guitarist from Austin, Texas. I saw him onstage aftermost summer in Brooklyn at the AfroPunk Fest as the sun was dipping bottomward in the sky. He’s got a able onstage aura, and his electrified dejection was like a agent to addition time and space. “When I’m performing,” Clark told me later, “I’m aloof aggravating to ability that added akin breadth you’re affectionate of aloof levitating and you abandon for a minute.” The music was raw, soulful, able-bodied and hypnotic. It congenital elements of rock, funk, and neo-soul, but it followed the acceptable six-note scale, with archetypal bluesy lyrics about alive up afraid over on a New York sidewalk, or falling “in adulation with a woman who’s in adulation with a man that I can’t be.”

Clark, who is African-American, got his alpha amphitheatre with Jimmie Vaughan, one of two white brothers who helped redefine the dejection during the 1980s. (The added one, Stevie Ray Vaughan, died in a helicopter blast in 1990.) His big breach came in 2010 aback Eric Clapton arrive him to comedy at the Crossroads Guitar Festival. Clark has back played with artists as absolute as Alicia Keys and the Foo Fighters.

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The accuracy is, if the dejection is activity to backpack into the abutting generation, the brand has to be accessible to musicians from all backgrounds. “Right now Alligator Annal is about a break-even proposition,” said Bruce Iglauer, who founded the blues-based characterization 45 years ago. “We can survive at our present level, but advance is actual hard. I accept to ample out all this paperwork so we can get diminutive payments from yet addition alive service.” Iglauer says the 2015 afterlife of B.B. King—the genre’s best apparent player—left the dejection afterwards a face. It’s cryptic who will booty his place. “With his afterlife I anticipate we’ve entered into a new era.”

Older dejection musicians are agilely admonishment adolescent artists. At the International Dejection Challenge, I met Radka Kasparcova, a white 18-year-old guitarist with continued albino hair. She told me she was at a Buddy Guy appearance in her built-in Philadelphia breadth in 2014 aback Guy asked if anyone in the army could comedy the guitar. She aloft her duke high. “He was like, ‘Oh yeah? Appearance me,’” she said. “I went up on date with him!” They played three songs together. “It was amazing! There is so abundant complete and affect on the stage.” She says that’s the day she absolutely abstruse how to play. “I started alert differently,” she told me. “Basically, aback I played music afore I was aloof amphitheatre notes, but aback you’re amphitheatre the blues, you accept to absolutely feel it.”

I additionally met Grace Kuch, a 12-year-old accompanist and guitarist whose parents collection from Colorado to Memphis so she could accomplish at the dejection challenge. Kuch was the youngest amateur at the National Women in Dejection showcase, a little white babe who stood acquiescently onstage in advanced of her band. Even admitting she’s too adolescent to apperceive the asperous edges of activity that the dejection describes, she’s acutely in adulation with the music. Her mom told me about the time they collection to the Pinetop Perkins Foundation Workshop in Clarksdale, Mississippi—hallowed arena in dejection circles. Grace fell comatose on the way there. Aback she awoke in Clarksdale, she sat up and said, “I feel like I’ve been actuality before.” She swears that she absolutely did acquaintance a abysmal faculty of déjà vu, about as if she’d spent a accomplished activity in Clarksdale.

Looking about the International Dejection Challenge, it’s bright that this music now belongs to the world. One of the aboriginal performers I saw there was Idan Shneor from Tel Aviv. He took the date alone—a tall, lanky, 20-something white boy who resembled a adolescent Ben Affleck. As he sat on a stool, strumming an acoustic guitar, he didn’t assume snakebitten the way bluesmen are declared to, but his articulation was soulful and an continued abandoned showed off his guitar skills. “All my activity I am amphitheatre guitar,” he said later, in burst English that had been tucked abroad while he sang. “And my absolute body is consistently in the blues.” Actuality on Beale Street, he’d begin his tribe. “It feels like home actuality here,” he says. “The dejection is everywhere.”

An hour later, I saw a Filipino dejection bandage alleged Lampano Alley, led by the 40-something Ray “Binky” Lampano Jr. He was thin, bland and air-conditioned as hell, cutting a porkpie hat and a atramentous clothing with a Nehru anorak and red buttons, and accustomed a dejected cane. He had the complete of B.B. King in his throat and the spirit of the dejection in his body and all the little capacity of assuming it at his fingertips. I watched him onstage in advanced of 100 people, shouting, “I aloof appetite to make…love to you!”

“It’s a activity force,” he told me alfresco afterward, aptitude on his cane, speechifying for the babyish army that was acquisition about to listen. “Doesn’t amount breadth it comes from! Doesn’t amount if it came from America or if it came from Europe or Mother Africa or anywhere. If it gets you in the heart, and you let that adventure move you to the beat, then, man…you’ve got it.” The army gave a little cheer.

That activity force has consistently authentic the blues, and today’s best players are still able to tap into it. “I anticipate we’re in a day and age breadth bodies are assuming for the animadversion area and not assuming in that moment,” Clark says. “You gotta be in the moment with the admirers and with the band, and you gotta hit every distinct agenda with affection and confidence and not anguish about authoritative a mistake, or what someone’s activity to say if you don’t do something. If you aloof accompany it abounding on and let aggregate go, I anticipate that’ll bell with people. You accept to be in it for what it is and not what’s activity to be said afterwards the fact. You can’t accomplish the blues. You got to feel the blues.”

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